There has been an increasing trend to accept aqueous wastes at landfills in recent years, achieved through the use of bulking or solidification/stabilization (S/S) agents. The practices and strategies are generally developed on a case-by-case basis, and in some instances are viewed as proprietary.
While a wide array of materials have been used as bulking or S/S agents, summarized information regarding the state of practice, material properties and usage is not widely available. In particular, material physical and chemical properties are important to ensure their use does not cause excessive heat generation, create odors or leach undesirable or toxic compounds.
Key objectives of this report include:
- Identify the types of aqueous waste materials accepted by landfills that require stabilization
- Document the materials typically used as bulking or solidification/stabilization (S/S) agents
- Describe the material testing, considerations and challenges when selecting agents
- Summarize the properties and reactivity of bulking and S/S agents, such as potential for heat generation or metals leaching